Law 759 Computer Crimes Spring 2016

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Chapter 1. Introduction (1)

A. Overview of Computer Crime Law ( 1)

B. Comparing Physical Crimes and Computer Crimes ( 3)

Notes and Questions ( 5)

Chapter 2. Computer Misuse Crimes ( 8)

A. Why Punish Computer Misuse? ( 8)

Problem 1 ( 9)

Problem 2 (10)

Notes and Questions (10)

B. Property Crimes as a Response to Computer Misuse ( 13)

United States v. Seidlitz (15)

Notes and Questions (18)

State v. McGraw (22)

Notes and Questions (25)

C. Unauthorized Access Statutes ( 29)

1. Introduction to Unauthorized Access Statutes (29)

2. What Is Access? (31)

State v. Riley (33)

Notes and Questions (35)

3. What Is Authorization? The Case of Code–Based Restrictions (38)

United States v. Morris (41)

Notes and Questions (47)

Assignment for Lesson 3 on 1/21/16: Pages 51 to 82. [Only got to 68]

4. What Is Authorization? The Case of Contract–Based Restrictions (51)

United States v. Nosal (52)

Notes and Questions (62)

Handout on Nosal.

5. What Is Authorization? The Case of Norms–Based Restrictions (68)

EF Cultural Travel BV v. Zefer Corp. (68)

Notes and Questions (73)

Assignment for Lesson 4 on 1/26/16: Review Pages 76 to 82, then read on to page 99.

Supplemental materials:

    • Sample 1030(a)(2) & (c)(2)(B)(ii) indictment joined with identitiy theft and wiretapping.
    • Sample 1030(a)(2) & (c)(2)(B)(ii) indictment with drug conspiracy.
    • Sample 1030(a)(2) Conspiracy indictment.
    • Sample Magistrate Findings and Recommendations on definition of "Exceeds Authorized Access"

     

D. 18 U.S.C. § 1030(a)(2) and Its Felony Enhancements ( 76)

1. 18 U.S.C. § 1030(a)(2) Misdemeanor Liability (78)

2. 18 U.S.C. § 1030(a)(2) Felony Liability (82)

United States v. Batti (82)

Notes and Questions (87)

E. 18 U.S.C. § 1030(a)(4) and Computer Fraud Statutes ( 90)

United States v. Czubinski (92)

Notes and Questions (98)

Assignment for Lesson 5 on 1/28/16: Pages 100 to 135.

F. 18 U.S.C. § 1030(a)(5) and Computer Damage Statutes ( 100)

1. 18 U.S.C. § 1030(A)(5) Misdemeanor Liability (100)

United States v. Carlson (102)

Notes and Questions (105)

2. 18 U.S.C. § 1030(a)(5) Felony Liability (112)

United States v. Middleton (113)

Notes and Questions (119)

United States v. Sablan (125)

Notes and Questions (129)

Assignment for Lesson 6 on 2/2/16: Pages 136 to 168.

Supplemental materials:

Chapter 3. Traditional Crimes ( 136)

A. Economic Crimes ( 137)

1. Property Crimes (137)

People v. Johnson (137)

Notes and Questions (141)

United States v. Aleynikov (143)

Notes and Questions (148)

2. The Economic Espionage Act (151)

United States v. Genovese (151)

Notes and Questions (155)

United States v. Aleynikov (156)

Notes and Questions (159)

3. Identity Theft and Access Device Fraud (160)

United States v. Barrington (161)

Notes and Questions (166)

Assignment for Lesson 7 on 2/4/16: Please review pages 151 to 168, then read pages 168 to 184.

4. Copyright Law (168)

a) Introduction ( 168)

David Goldstone—Prosecuting Intellectual Property Crimes (168)

Notes and Questions (171)

b) The Willfulness Requirement ( 173)

United States v. Moran (174)

Notes and Questions (181)

Assignment for Lesson 8 on 2/9/16: Please read pages 184 to 212. [Supp. pp 125 through 134 replaces Alkhabaz on pages 204-212.]

c) Total Retail Value ( 184)

United States v. Armstead (184)

Notes and Questions (191)

d) Intent to Profit (192)

United States v. Shabazz (192)

Notes and Questions (194)

e) Prosecutorial Discretion (197)

United States Department of Justice—Illegal "Warez" Organizations and Internet Piracy (197)

Notes and Questions (200)

B. Crimes Against Persons ( 201)

1. Threats and Harassment (202)

a) Statutory Issues ( 202)

United States v. Alkhabaz (204) See Supp. 125.

Notes and Questions (210)

[Note: Class was cancelled on Thursday, 2/11/16.]

Assignment for Lesson 9 on 2/16/16: Read pages 212 to 232.

b) Constitutional Limits ( 212)

United States v. Carmichael (213)

Notes and Questions (221)

United States v. White (224)

Notes and Questions (226)

Assignment for Lesson 10 on 2/18/16: Read pages 231 to 267.

Supplemental materials:

2. Invasion of Privacy Crimes (231)

C. Vice Crimes ( 232)

1. Internet Gambling (234)

Ronald J. Rychlak—Legal Problems With On–Line Gambling (234)

Notes and Questions (237)

United States v. Cohen (238)

Notes and Questions (243)

Assignment for Lesson 11 on 2/23/16: Read pages 247 to 272.

2. Obscenity (247)

Miller v. California (248)

Notes and Questions (254)

United States v. Extreme Associates, Inc. (260)

Notes and Questions (263)

D. Child Exploitation Crimes ( 267)

1. Child Pornography (267)

a) Introduction ( 267)

b) The Proxy Rationale ( 268)

c) 18 U.S.C. § 2252 ( 271)

d) 18 U.S.C. § 2252A and 18 U.S.C. § 2256 ( 271)

Assignment for Lesson 12 on 2/25/16: Please read pages 272 to 314.

e) Statutory Elements of 18 U.S.C. §§ 2252 and 2252A ( 272)

United States v. Shaffer (272)

Notes and Questions (276)

Barton v. State (280)

Notes and Questions (283)

f) Constitutional Issues ( 295)

Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition (295)

Notes and Questions (301)

United States v. Marchand (304)

Notes and Questions (312)

Assignment for Lesson 13 on 3/1/16: Please read pages 314 to 327.

2. Traveler Cases and Entrapment (314)

State v. Davies (316)

Notes and Questions (324)

Assignment for Lesson 14 on 3/3/16: Please read pages 328-357 plus Notes 3 & 4 on pp. 373-5.

Chapter 4. Sentencing ( 328)

A. Are Computer Crimes Different? ( 328)

Neal Kumar Katyal—Criminal Law in Cyberspace (328)

Notes and Questions (330)

United States v. Lee (334)

Notes and Questions (340)

B. Sentencing in Child Pornography Cases ( 343)

Notes and Questions (350)

C. Sentencing in Computer Misuse Cases ( 353)

United States v. Dinh (357)

Notes and Questions (363)

D. Supervised Release and Probation Restrictions ( 366)

United States v. Paul (366)

United States v. Sofsky (371)

Notes and Questions (373)

[Note: Class was cancelled on Tuesday, 3/8/16.]

Assignment for Lesson 15 on 3/10/16: Please review pages 353-357 plus Notes 3 & 4 on pp. 373-5 and please read pages 376-400.

Chapter 5. The Fourth Amendment ( 376)

A. The Requirement of Government Action ( 377)

United States v. Jarrett (378)

Notes and Questions (384)

B. Defining Searches and Seizures ( 387)

1. Searches (387)

United States v. David (390)

Notes and Questions (392)

Assignment for Lesson 16 on 3/22/16: Please read pages 401-430.

Assignment for Lesson 17 on 3/24: Please read pages 401-445.

2. Seizures (401)

United States v. Jefferson (402)

Notes and Questions (406)

C. Exceptions to the Warrant Requirement ( 409)

1. Exigent Circumstances(409)

United States v. Trowbridge (410)

Notes and Questions (415)

2. Consent (419)

a) Scope of Consent ( 420)

United States v. Al–Marri (420)

Notes and Questions (424)

b) Third–Party Consent (430)

United States v. Buckner (430)

Notes and Questions (433)

c) Apparent Authority (435)

United States v. Andrus (436)

Notes and Questions (442)

Assignment for Lesson 18 on 3/29/16: Please read pages 445-486.

Supplemental Resource: Online presentation summarizing Fourth Amendment in cyberspace.

3. Search Incident to Arrest (Supp. 155-169)

Riley v. California in Supplement at page 155.

Schlossberg v. Solesbee (445)

Notes and Questions (450)

4. Border Searches (452)

United States v. Arnold (452)

Notes and Questions (457)

5. Government Workplace Searches (462)

Leventhal v. Knapek (464)

Notes and Questions (471)

D. Searching and Seizing Computers With a Warrant ( 473)

1. Probable Cause and Particularity (474)

United States v. Adjani (476)

Assignment for Lesson 19 on 3/31/16: Please read pages 486, n.2, n.3, n.8, 495-513 (and relevant Supplement pages, of course).

Notes and Questions (486) [We might skip some of these notes.]

2. The Physical Search Stage (495)

United States v. Hill (496)

Notes and Questions (501)

3. The Electronic Search Stage (504)

United States v. Williams (505)

Notes and Questions (509)

Assignment for Lesson 20 on 4/5/16: Please review pages 504-513 and read pages 513-541.

4. Ex Ante Restrictions on Computer Warrants (513)

In re Application For A Search Warrant To Seize and Search Electronic Devices From Edward

Cunnius (513)

Notes and Questions (522)

5. Encryption (528)

a) Fourth Amendment Issues ( 528)

b) Fifth Amendment Issues ( 532)

In re Subpoena Duces Tecum (533)

Notes and Questions (540)

Assignment for Online Lesson 21 to be completed anytime before 4/7/16: Follow this link.

Assignment for Special Lesson 22, DEBATE, on 4/7/16 please read:

TBD (The pleadings relevant to your group).

Assignment for Lesson 23 on 4/12/16: Please read pages 541-573.

E. The Fourth Amendment and Computer Networks (541)

1. Analogies to Speech, Letters, and Telephone Calls (543)

2. Non-content Information (552)

United States v. Forrester (552)

Notes and Questions (556)

3. Content Information (559)

United States v. Warshak (559)

Notes and Questions (564)

Assignment for Lesson 24 on 4/14/16: Please read pages 574-602.

Chapter 6. Statutory Privacy Protections ( 574)

A. The Wiretap Act ( 579)

1. The Basic Structure (580)

O'Brien v. O'Brien (580)

Notes and Questions (583)

2. The Consent Exception (592)

Griggs–Ryan v. Smith (592)

Notes and Questions (596)

Assignment for Lesson 25 on 4/19/16: Please read pages 602-632.

3. The Provider Exception (602)

United States v. Auler (603)

Notes and Questions (607)

McClelland v. McGrath (609)

Notes and Questions (611)

4. The Computer Trespasser Exception (613)

United States Department of Justice—Field Guidance on New Authorities That Relate to Computer Crime and Electronic Evidence Enacted in the USA Patriot Act of 2001 (615))

Notes and Questions (616))

B. The Pen Register Statute ( 618)

In re Application of the United States of America (620)

Notes and Questions (627)

Assignment for Lesson 26 originally for 4/21/16 but now part of Lesson 27: Please read pages 632-660.

C. The Stored Communications Act (632)

1. The Basic Structure (633)

Notes and Questions (640)

2. Compelled Disclosure Under § 2703 (648)

United States v. Weaver (648)

Notes and Questions (652)

Assignment for Lesson 27 on 4/26/16: Please review Lesson 26, which you likely read for 4/21/16 when class was cancelled, AND read pages 660-673 and 697-710 for Lesson 27. We will cover both assignments during our last class on 4/26/16.

3. Voluntary Disclosure Under § 2702 (660)

Andersen Consulting LLP v. UOP (660)

Notes and Questions (662)

Jayne v. Sprint PCS (664)

Notes and Questions (666)

D. Problems (671)

Problem One (671)

Problem Two (672)

Problem Three (672)

Chapter 7. Jurisdiction ( 674)

A. Federal Power (675)

1. Constitutional Limits (675)

United States v. Jeronimo–Bautista (676)

Notes and Questions (682)

2. Substantive Statutory Limits (682)

United States v. Kammersell (682)

Notes and Questions (685)

United States v. Lewis (687)

Notes and Questions (690)

3. Procedural Statutory Limits (693)

a) Statutory Privacy Laws (693)

b) National Versus Local Orders (694)

B. State Power (697)

1. Substantive Limits (697)

American Library Association v. Pataki (697)

Notes and Questions (705)

2. Procedural Limits (710)

State v. Reid (711)

Notes and Questions (718)

State v. Signore (718)

Notes and Questions (720)

C. International Computer Crimes (724)

1. United States Substantive Law (724)

United States v. Ivanov (725)

Notes and Questions (731)

2. United States Procedural Law (734)

United States v. Barona (735)

Notes and Questions (743)

3. Mutual Legal Assistance and International Treaties (752)

In re Request from the Russian Federation Pursuant to the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Russian Federation (752)

Notes and Questions (759)

Michael A. Sussmann—The Critical Challenges From International High–Tech and Computer–Related Crime at the Millennium (760)

Notes and Questions (768)

Assignment for Lesson ** on *****: Please read pages 770-779.

Council of Europe—Convention on Cybercrime (770)

Notes and Questions (777)

4. Foreign Computer Crime Law (779)

Rex v. Bow Street Magistrates' Court (780)

Notes and Questions (786)

Chapter 8. National Security (788)

A. The Fourth Amendment ( 789)

United States v. United States District Court (790)

Notes and Questions (798)

B. The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act ( 807)

Notes and Questions (813)

C. Use of FISA Evidence in Criminal Cases ( 817)

United States v. Squillacote (818)

 

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